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# NAAP Basic Coordinates and Seasons – Pedagogical Objectives

## Terrestrial Coordinates

• Student will be able to explain longitude and latitude – their definition, units, notation and ranges.
• Student will be able to identify and name the basic named coordinate features Prime Meridian, International Date Line, Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn and the Arctic and Antarctic Circles.
• Student will be able to read a coordinate from a flat map and correctly place a coordinate on a flat map.
• Student will be able to demonstrate an awareness that a flat map distorts the geographical area depicted.
• Student will be able to read sexagesimal units and make simple conversion between decimal and sexagesimal notation.

## Celestial Coordinates

• Student will be able to identify and name the celestial equator and celestial poles.
• Student will be able to explain declination and right ascension – their definition, units, notation, and ranges.
• Student will be able to read from or place on a flat map a coordinate.
• Student will be demonstrate awareness that celestial equatorial coordinates are observer independent.

## Seasons

• Student will demonstrate understanding that the ecliptic is the orbital plane of the earth and sun and not perpendicular to the earth's axis of rotation.
• Student will be able to numerically quantify the earth's obliquity: 23.5°.
• Student will be able to identify the relationship between the ecliptic and the celestial sphere, name , visually identify, and given coordinates for the four primary seasonal points.
• Student will correlate the change of declination of the sun with the change of the sun's meridional altitude in the sky and length of time in the sky.
• Student will demonstrate understanding that the height of the sun in the sky changes the effective energy incident on the surface of a local region on earth.
• Student will be able to correctly give the primary causes for the meteorological seasonal variation or correctly identify common but incorrect justifications.